|The box camera design was simple and successful. Many box
cameras had long production lives, for example the Box Tengor was in production
for over 30 years.
|Camera : Box
Manufacturer : Zeiss Ikon
Date : c1925-1956
|The box camera was not very compact so in 1897 Eastman
Kodak introduced a range of folding cameras called the Folding Pocket Kodaks.
|Camera : No.
3A Folding Pocket Kodak
Manufacturer : Eastman Kodak
Date : 1903-1915
|From 1914 the Autographic feature appeared on most models,
this enabled the photographer to write on the film with a metal stylus,
through the backing paper and special tissue. The Autographic feature was
accessible via a flap on the back of the camera.
For over 30 years the Kodak
girl advertised Kodak cameras in the UK
The 'Speed Graphic' 4 x 5 inch plate camera dominated photojournalism
in America during the 1930s. The Speed Graphic, first introduced in 1912,
was manufactured by Graflex, a Rochester, New York based camera maker.
The camera was a portable version of the studio view camera offering camera
movements, interchangeable lenses and extendable bellows for extreme close-ups.
Many models had coupled range finders for fast focusing as well as the
traditional glass screen. Also fitted were open wire framed and optical
viewfinders plus a large flashbulb holder. At this time Newspapers preferred
their photographers to use plates as they could be processed individually,
also the 5 inch format was very practical for newspaper layout as this
sized negative exactly fitted 3 newspaper column widths. However the versatility
of this camera had to be balanced against its weight and general clumsiness.
"Pre-Anniversary" Speed Graphic
Manufacturer : Graflex
Date : c1928 - 1939
British copy of the American Speed Graphic.
Manufacturer : MPP
Date : 1940
Lens Reflex (SLR) designs comes from the 17th Century camera obscuras.
It uses a mirror at an angle of 45 degrees to divert the image from the
film plane to a viewing screen on the top of the camera. The SRL design
was not necessary until the 1890's when the emulsion speed of dry plates
made action photography possible. The SLR design enabled the photographer
to view action right up to the moment the picture was taken.
In 1932 the German company Ihagee began production of the Exakta. It
was smaller and more compact than previous SLR designs although it still
used roll-film and a waist-high viewfinder. The camera was an immediate
Camera : Exakta
Manufacturer : Ihagee
Date : 1932-c1940
|The Twin Lens Reflex (TLR)
design, where the image is viewed through a second lens, was too cumbersome
for plate cameras. However in the 1930's they started to appear on small
roll-film cameras. Franke & Heidecke, later known as Rollei, introduced
their first Rolleiflex TLR
in 1929. The cheaper Rolleicord was introduced in 1933.
|Camera : Rolleiflex
Manufacturer : Franke &
Date : 1929-1932
|In 1889 Thomas Edison, while working on equipment that
might be used to photograph moving pictures, approached George Eastman
for some of his new flexible film. The 2 3/4 inches
(70 mm) wide Kodak roll-film was slit down the middle, making it 1 3/8
inches (35 mm) and sprocket holes were punched down each side for film
transportation through the movie camera. By the First World War this film
had become the standard for movie pictures. Several camera manufacturers
attempted to use this readily available film stock but the cameras were
not of a high enough quality to satisfactorily record images on this small
In 1913 a German design engineer, Oskar
Barnack, produced a prototype 35 mm camera. Barnack had poor health but
was an avid hiker and amateur photographer. He wanted to take a smaller
camera on his walks in the hills. In 1924 the camera went into production
at the Leitz factory in Germany. It was called the Leica from the initials
of "LEItz CAmera" and took pictures the size of 24 x 36 mm. This
was twice as large as the standard movie film picture (24 x 18 mm) and
became the standard for 35 mm still photography. The capabilities of the
Leica made a new form of photojournalism possible, as typified by the
|Camera : Leica
Manufacturer : Ernst Leitz
Date : 1932-1948
|In 1934 Kodak produced their first 35 mm camera The Retina
1. With it Kodak introduced a new kind of film cassette which they called
the 135. This is the standard 35 mm cassette still in use today.
|Camera : Retina
Manufacturer : Kodak (Germany)
Date : 1934-1935
|In 1948 the Polaroid Land Camera Model 95 was introduced.
Dr. Edwin H Land invented an "instant" camera and film which did not require
a separate development process as all the required chemicals were incorporated
into a pod in the film.
Manufacturer : Polaroid
Date : 1948-1953
|In 1948 Hasselblad, a Swedish company, introduced the camera
which was the forerunner to some of the best known roll-film SLRs
|Camera : Hasselblad
Manufacturer : Hasselblad
Date : 1948-1952
|In 1949 the German Contax S and the Italian Rectaflex Single
Lens Reflex (SLR)
cameras were introduced with a pentaprism on top of the camera to turn
the image the correct way round in the viewfinder.